As one of the natural bee products, propolis is a resin-like substance collected by bees from the leaves, stems and buds of plants and is very rich in terms of antioxidants. Bees use propolis as an antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral agent in the hive and to create a sterile environment inside the hive and to protect the health of the bee colony. Over 300 compounds have been discovered in propolis and it contains polyphenols, terpenoids, amino acids, volatile organic acids, ketones,coumarin, Quinone, vitamins and minerals.
The composition of propolis varies depending on the type of plant its extracted from, the way it is collected and used by the bee,production method used by the beekeeper and methods used in the process for making it suitable for human consumption. Propolis can’t be consumed in its original form in the hive. For it to be suitable for human consumption and for our body to benefit from this substance, it has to be processed. These processing methods are extremely important.Inappropriate processing methods may result in propolis, which is otherwise a very nutritious substance, to loose all its nutritious qualities and activity. Thus, propolis should be processed by experts using appropriate infrastructure, know-how and technical equipment before being sold for human consumption.